MonthJune 2015

Dokku Environment variable special characters

Note to self: with dokku 0.3.1.7 special bash character in environment variable do not get parsed properly, and they break everything. Do not use them.

For example:

# this will fail
BLAH=!qwekcxzmpeqd('}

# this won't
BLAH=ewq989u0caad909ad

The amount of randomness involved is smaller. Most likely upgrading to 0.3.18 could fix this.

It took me 2 hours to figure this out and my push to my dokku server where denied.

Clean up old kernels

Do you want to save 15 Gb of space?

I have an old laptop from 2008, which is running ubuntu. Everytime a new kernel is released, this gets installed, however the older kernels and their image do remain available and they do not get automatically uninstalled. I guess this is a security feature, however if the installation is done only once, and years and years of new kernels are stacked, the space taken may start to be excessive and also big enough that reclaim it is a good idea.

Starting point

As you can see from below, my / partition was quite full

mattions@triton:~$ df -h
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1                 46G   43G  1.3G  98% /
udev                     2.0G  4.0K  2.0G   1% /dev
tmpfs                    396M  1.1M  395M   1% /run
none                     5.0M  8.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
none                     2.0G  260K  2.0G   1% /run/shm
cgroup                   2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda6                176G  166G  1.7G 100% /home
/home/mattions/.Private  176G  166G  1.7G 100% /home/mattions

The images stored in the boot partition were also taking quite a bit of space:

mattions@triton:~$ du /boot -sh
2.3G /boot

Purge the old kernels

To purge the old kernels, you can either do it by hand via ubuntu software center, or by synaptic, or use a script to do it for you. After a bit of googling, I’ve discovered the following script, aptly named purge-old-kernels, which I have also uploaded as a gist on git, just not to loose. Feel free to download it and use it if you want

When I ran the script, this is the list of the kernels that will be eliminated in my case (yours maybe will differ):


mattions@triton:~$ sudo bash Desktop/purge-old-kernels.sh Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required: linux-headers-3.13.0-32 linux-headers-3.13.0-34 linux-headers-3.13.0-35 linux-headers-3.13.0-43 linux-headers-3.13.0-39 linux-headers-3.13.0-46 linux-headers-3.13.0-49 linux-headers-3.11.0-17 linux-headers-3.11.0-18 Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them. The following packages will be REMOVED linux-generic-lts-saucy* linux-headers-3.11.0-17-generic* linux-headers-3.11.0-18-generic* linux-headers-3.11.0-19-generic* linux-headers-3.11.0-20-generic* linux-headers-3.11.0-22-generic* linux-headers-3.11.0-23-generic* linux-headers-3.11.0-24-generic* linux-headers-3.11.0-26-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-32-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-33-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-34-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-35-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-36-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-37-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-39-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-43-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-44-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-45-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-46-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-48-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-49-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-51-generic* linux-headers-3.13.0-52-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-23-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-24-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-25-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-26-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-27-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-29-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-30-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-31-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-32-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-33-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-34-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-35-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-36-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-37-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-38-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-39-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-40-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-41-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-43-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-44-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-45-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-48-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-49-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-51-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-52-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-53-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-54-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-55-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-56-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-57-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-58-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-59-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-60-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-61-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-63-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-64-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-65-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-67-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-68-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-69-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-70-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-74-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-75-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-76-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-77-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-79-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-80-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-82-generic* linux-headers-3.2.0-83-generic* linux-headers-3.8.0-36-generic* linux-headers-generic-lts-saucy* linux-image-3.11.0-17-generic* linux-image-3.11.0-18-generic* linux-image-3.11.0-19-generic* linux-image-3.11.0-20-generic* linux-image-3.11.0-22-generic* linux-image-3.11.0-23-generic* linux-image-3.11.0-24-generic* linux-image-3.11.0-26-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-32-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-33-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-34-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-35-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-36-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-37-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-39-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-43-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-44-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-45-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-46-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-48-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-49-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-51-generic* linux-image-3.13.0-52-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-23-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-24-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-25-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-26-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-27-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-29-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-30-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-31-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-32-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-33-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-34-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-35-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-36-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-37-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-38-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-39-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-40-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-41-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-43-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-44-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-45-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-48-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-49-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-51-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-52-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-53-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-54-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-55-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-56-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-57-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-58-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-59-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-60-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-61-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-63-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-64-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-65-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-67-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-68-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-69-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-70-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-74-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-75-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-76-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-77-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-79-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-80-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-82-generic* linux-image-3.2.0-83-generic* linux-image-3.8.0-36-generic* linux-image-generic-lts-saucy* 0 to upgrade, 0 to newly install, 149 to remove and 1 not to upgrade. After this operation, 13.0 GB disk space will be freed. Do you want to continue [Y/n]?

Results

After I’ve choosen yes, it took quite a bit but at the end it was worth it

mattions@triton:~$ df -h
Filesystem               Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1                 46G   28G   17G  63% /
udev                     2.0G  4.0K  2.0G   1% /dev
tmpfs                    396M  1.1M  395M   1% /run
none                     5.0M  8.0K  5.0M   1% /run/lock
none                     2.0G   37M  1.9G   2% /run/shm
cgroup                   2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda6                176G  166G  1.7G 100% /home
/home/mattions/.Private  176G  166G  1.7G 100% /home/mattions

And the Boot partition is just 70 Mb:

mattions@triton:~$ du /boot -sh
70M /boot

So from 45 Gb to 25 GB, and the boot partition itself from 2.3 Gb to 70 Mb.

Pretty good I think.

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